Postoperative interventional neuroradiology was performed in patients with malignant gliomas to increase target efficacy of chemotherapy. In 8 glioma patients the blood brain or blood tumor barrier was reversibly opened by intraarterial injection of hyperosmolar fluid (Mannitol 25%). One additional patient had primary lymphoma of the central nervous system. During barrier modification chemotherapeutic agents were applied intraarterially and intravenously. A total of 22 blood brain barrier modification procedures have been carried out until now, ranging from one to five per patient. A presently continuing tumor regression or tumor progression free intervals have been noted in 5 patients. Therapeutic effects are being evaluated from repeated computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography examinations.