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BK Channelopathies and KCNMA1-Linked Disease Models

Authors
  • Meredith, Andrea L.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Annual Review of Physiology
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
Feb 12, 2024
Volume
86
Pages
277–300
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-030323-042845
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Novel KCNMA1 variants, encoding the BK K+ channel, are associated with a debilitating dyskinesia and epilepsy syndrome. Neurodevelopmental delay, cognitive disability, and brain and structural malformations are also diagnosed at lower incidence. More than half of affected individuals present with a rare negative episodic motor disorder, paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD3). The mechanistic relationship of PNKD3 to epilepsy and the broader spectrum of KCNMA1-associated symptomology is unknown. This review summarizes patient-associated KCNMA1 variants within the BK channel structure, functional classifications, genotype-phenotype associations, disease models, and treatment. Patient and transgenic animal data suggest delineation of gain-of-function (GOF) and loss-of-function KCNMA1 neurogenetic disease, validating two heterozygous alleles encoding GOF BK channels (D434G and N999S) as causing seizure and PNKD3. This discovery led to a variant-defined therapeutic approach for PNKD3, providing initial insight into the neurological basis. A comprehensive clinical definition of monogenic KCNMA1-linked disease and the neuronal mechanisms currently remain priorities for continued investigation.

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