Affordable Access

Access to the full text

A Bit-Interleaved Sigma-Delta-Over-Fiber Fronthaul Network for Frequency-Synchronous Distributed Antenna Systems

  • wu;, chia-yi
Publication Date
Dec 03, 2021
DOI: 10.3390/app112311471
External links


Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) has attracted wide attention as wireless spectral efficiency has become a 6G key performance indicator. The distributed scheme improves the spectral efficiency and user fairness, but the fronthaul network must evolve to enable it. This work demonstrates a fronthaul network for distributed antenna systems enabled by the bit-interleaved sigma-delta-over-fiber (BISDoF) concept: multiple sigma-delta modulated baseband signals are time-interleaved into one non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signal, which is converted to the optical domain by a commercial QSFP and transmitted over fiber. The BISDoF concept improves the optical bit-rate efficiency while keeping the remote unit complexity sufficiently low. The implementation successfully deals with an essential challenge—precise frequency synchronization of different remote units. Moreover, owing to the straightforward data paths, all transceivers inherently transmit or receive with fixed timing offsets which can be easily calibrated. The error vector magnitudes of both the downlink and uplink data paths are less than 2.8% (–31 dB) when transmitting 40.96 MHz-bandwidth OFDM signals (256-QAM) centered around 3.6 GHz. (Optical path: 100 m multi-mode fibers; wireless path: electrical back-to-back.) Without providing an extra reference clock, the two remote units were observed to have the same carrier frequency; the standard deviation of the relative jitter was 9.43 ps.

Report this publication


Seen <100 times