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Bisphosphonate inhibitors of squalene synthase protect cells against cholesterol-dependent cytolysins.

Authors
  • Pospiech, Mateusz1
  • Owens, Siân E1
  • Miller, David J2
  • Austin-Muttitt, Karl1
  • Mullins, Jonathan G L1
  • Cronin, James G1
  • Allemann, Rudolf K2
  • Sheldon, I Martin1
  • 1 Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
  • 2 School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
Type
Published Article
Journal
The FASEB Journal
Publisher
Federation of American Society for Experimental Biology
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2021
Volume
35
Issue
6
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1096/fj.202100164R
PMID: 33991130
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Certain species of pathogenic bacteria damage tissues by secreting cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, which form pores in the plasma membranes of animal cells. However, reducing cholesterol protects cells against these cytolysins. As the first committed step of cholesterol biosynthesis is catalyzed by squalene synthase, we explored whether inhibiting this enzyme protected cells against cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. We first synthesized 22 different nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate molecules that were designed to inhibit squalene synthase. Squalene synthase inhibition was quantified using a cell-free enzyme assay, and validated by computer modeling of bisphosphonate molecules binding to squalene synthase. The bisphosphonates were then screened for their ability to protect HeLa cells against the damage caused by the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin. The most effective bisphosphonate reduced pyolysin-induced leakage of lactate dehydrogenase into cell supernatants by >80%, and reduced pyolysin-induced cytolysis from >75% to <25%. In addition, this bisphosphonate reduced pyolysin-induced leakage of potassium from cells, limited changes in the cytoskeleton, prevented mitogen-activated protein kinases cell stress responses, and reduced cellular cholesterol. The bisphosphonate also protected cells against another cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, streptolysin O, and protected lung epithelial cells and primary dermal fibroblasts against cytolysis. Our findings imply that treatment with bisphosphonates that inhibit squalene synthase might help protect tissues against pathogenic bacteria that secrete cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. © 2021 The Authors. The FASEB Journal published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.

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