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Bipedal vs. unipedal: a comparison between one-foot and two-foot driving in a driving simulator.

Authors
  • Wang, Dong-Yuan Debbie1
  • Richard, F Dan1
  • Cino, Cullen R1
  • Blount, Trevin1
  • Schmuller, Joseph1
  • 1 a Department of Psychology , University of North Florida , Jacksonville , FL , USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Ergonomics
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2017
Volume
60
Issue
4
Pages
553–562
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2016.1191678
PMID: 27210894
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Is it better to drive with one foot or with two feet? Although two-foot driving has fostered interminable debate in the media, no scientific and systematic research has assessed this issue and federal and local state governments have provided no answers. The current study compared traditional unipedal (one-foot driving, using the right foot to control the accelerator and the brake pedal) with bipedal (two-foot driving, using the right foot to control the accelerator and the left foot to control the brake pedal) responses to a visual stimulus in a driving simulator study. Each of 30 undergraduate participants drove in a simulated driving scenario. They responded to a STOP sign displayed on the centre of the screen by bringing their vehicle to a complete stop. Brake RT was shorter under the bipedal condition, while throttle RT showed advantage under the unipedal condition. Stopping time and distance showed a bipedal advantage, however. We discuss further limitations of the current study and implications in a driving task. Before drawing any conclusions from the simulator study, further on-road driving tests are necessary to confirm these obtained bipedal advantages. Practitioner Summary: Traditional unipedal (using the right foot to control the accelerator and the brake pedal) with bipedal (using the right foot to control the accelerator and the left foot to control the brake pedal) responses to a visual stimulus in a driving simulator were compared. Our results showed a bipedal advantage. Promotion: Although two-foot driving has fostered interminable debate in the media, no scientific and systematic research has assessed this issue and federal and local state governments have provided no answers. Traditional (one-foot driving, using the right foot to control the accelerator and the brake pedal) with bipedal (using the right foot to control the accelerator and the left foot to control the brake pedal) responses to a visual stimulus in a simulated driving study were compared. Throttle reaction time was faster in the unipedal condition whereas brake reaction time, stopping time and stopping distance showed a bipedal advantage. We discuss further theoretical issues and implications in a driving task.

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