The term 'biopesticide' encompasses a broad array of microbial pesticides, biochemicals derived from micro-organisms and other natural sources, and processes involving the genetic incorporation of DNA into agricultural commodities that confer protection against pest damage (plant-incorporated protectants). Some microbial pesticides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, have a long history of safe and effective use as a biological insecticide. More recent developments in microbial pest control include the utilisation of other bacterial and fungal species that may competitively inhibit the growth of pathogenic and toxigenic micro-organisms on important agricultural commodities. The use of microbes and their gene products introduces additional considerations to the toxicological dose-response relationship, including a need to determine the plausibility of infectious and immunological effects in association with human exposure to these biopesticides in food or the environment. Studies of substantial equivalence suggest that foods currently derived from plant-incorporated protectants are not likely to differ from conventional foods. However, there is general consensus that the scientific methods to assess risks from genetically modified foods and micro-organisms will continue to evolve in the future.