Toluene exposure was studied in 20 workers employed in painting and hand-finishing in an art furniture factory. Toluene was determined in the environmental air of places of work and in the alveolar air and blood of the workers. Hippuric acid and cresols were also tested in the workers' urine. Blood and urine tests were carried out before the work shift on Monday and Friday morning and at the end of the work shift on Friday afternoon. The other tests were performed on Friday afternoon only. Alveolar toluene concentrations, which were significantly correlated with environmental toluene concentrations (r = 0.6230; P less than 0.01), corresponded to 19.4% of the toluene concentration in the atmosphere. Blood toluene was also found in painters on Monday morning and was significantly correlated with the other parameters. On Friday afternoon it was three times higher than the environmental toluene concentration. Urinary o-Cresol was highly correlated with toluene in the atmosphere, in blood and with hippuric acid in urine. On the basis of the slope of the regression line the ratio between urinary o-Cresol and blood toluene concentration was 0.99. At the end of the work shift urinary hippuric acid concentration was highly correlated with o-Cresoluria and with toluene in blood and in the atmosphere.