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Biomimetic Approach to Counter Streptococcus mutans Biofilm: An In Vitro Study on Seashells.

Authors
  • Valan, Annie Sylvea1
  • Krithikadatta, Jogikalmat2
  • Doble, Mukesh1
  • Lakshmipathy, M1
  • 1 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, IND.
  • 2 Cariology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, IND.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cureus
Publisher
Cureus, Inc.
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2023
Volume
15
Issue
10
Identifiers
DOI: 10.7759/cureus.47758
PMID: 38021608
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Aim This study aimed to investigate the anti-adherent property of the seashell surface and periostracum to prevent the formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Materials and methods The seashells were initially collected from the natural urban beach, and an antibiofilm assay of the shells with and without periostracum was performed against Streptococcus mutans. Furthermore, the seashells were analyzed with a stylus profilometer (Mitutoyo Surftest SJ-301, Mitutoyo America Corporation, Illinois, USA), atomic force microscope (AFM; Nanosurf Easyscan 2, Nanosurf Inc., USA), contact angle assessment, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM; JEOL USA, Inc., FE-SEM IT800, Massachusetts, USA) analysis. The ability of seashells to prevent the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and form a biofilm with and without periostracum was studied by crystal violet assay. Results The results revealed that shells without periostracum promoted higher biofilm formation when compared to those having intact periostracum (by 15%, p<0.001). Shell 1 showed the highest biofilm formation, whereas shell 3 showed the least biofilm formation due to the differences in their surface morphologies. The remaining shells (4, 2, 6, and 5) showed interspersed biofilm formation. Conclusion In summary, our study was able to correlate the topologies of the shell surface with the biofilm formed by Streptococcus mutans with the wetting behavior of those shell surfaces and their roughness. More hydrophobic surfaces (with intact periostracum) were observed to lead to less attachment (correlation coefficient=-0.67). This study can pave the way for designing such biomimetic surfaces to prevent bacterial attachment. Copyright © 2023, Valan et al.

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