1. Toluene (TOL) is a neurotoxic, ototoxic and reprotoxic solvent which is metabolized via the glutathione pathway, producing benzylmercapturic, o-, m- and p-toluylmercapturic acids (MAs). These metabolites could be useful as biomarkers of TOL exposure. 2. The aims of this study were (1) to provide data on MAs excretion in rat urine following TOL exposure by inhalation, (2) to compare them to data from traditional TOL biomarkers, i.e. TOL in blood (Tol-B), and urinary hippuric acid (HA) and o-cresol (oCre) and (3) to establish a relationship between these different indicators and the airborne TOL concentration (Tol-A). 3. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a range of TOL concentrations. Blood and urine were collected and analyzed to determine biomarker levels. 4. Levels of the four MAs correlate strongly with Tol-A (comparable to the correlation with Tol-B). 5. MAs are thus clearly superior to oCre and HA as potential markers of exposure to TOL.