Malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract are amongst the most aggressive cancers and only few treatment options exist. We have recently analysed data from a phase II trial where patients with UGI cancers were treated with erlotinib and bevacizumab. The combination therapy could not be recommended in an unselected population of patients with chemo-refractory UGI cancer. However, a subpopulation of patients did benefit from the therapy. In this prospectively planned biomarker study we investigated vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by immunohistochemistry and KRAS mutation status detected by PCR as potential predictors of effect of therapy. High VEGF-A expression was correlated to longer overall survival (HR: 0.8, 95%CI: 0.7-0.9) and high VEGFR-2 expression to shorter progression free survival (HR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.0-1.9). EGFR expression and KRAS mutation status were not correlated to response or survival. We conclude that VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 could potentially be predictive markers in patients with UGI cancers treated with erlotinib and bevacizumab.