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Biomarkers Predictive of Long-Term Outcome After Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis.

  • Soldozy, Sauson1
  • Yağmurlu, Kaan1
  • Norat, Pedro1
  • Elsarrag, Mazin1
  • Costello, John1
  • Farzad, Faraz1
  • Sokolowski, Jennifer D1
  • Sharifi, Khadijeh A1
  • Elarjani, Turki2
  • Burks, Joshua2
  • Tvrdik, Petr1
  • Shaffrey, Mark E1
  • Park, Min S1
  • Starke, Robert M2
  • Gordon, Errol3
  • Kalani, M Yashar S4
  • 1 Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
  • 2 Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.
  • 3 St. John's Neuroscience Institute, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.
  • 4 St. John's Neuroscience Institute, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. Electronic address: [email protected]
Published Article
World neurosurgery
Publication Date
Jul 01, 2022
DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2021.10.157
PMID: 34728391


The goal of this study was to systematically review the usefulness of serum biomarkers in the setting of ischemic stroke (IS) to predict long-term outcome. A systematic literature review was performed using the PubMed and MEDLINE databases for studies published between 1986 and 2018. All studies assessing long-term functional outcome (defined as ≥30 days) after IS with respect to serum biomarkers were included. Data were extracted and pooled using a meta-analysis of odds ratios. Of the 2928 articles in the original literature search, 183 studies were selected. A total of 127 serum biomarkers were included. Biomarkers were grouped into several categories: inflammatory (n = 32), peptide/enzymatic (n = 30), oxidative/metabolic (n = 28), hormone/steroid based (n = 23), and hematologic/vascular (n = 14). The most commonly studied biomarkers in each category were found to be CRP, S100β, albumin, copeptin, and D-dimer. With the exception of S100β, all were found to be statistically associated with >30-day outcome after ischemic stroke. Serum-based biomarkers have the potential to predict functional outcome in patients with IS. This meta-analysis has identified C-reactive protein, albumin, copeptin, and D-dimer to be significantly associated with long-term outcome after IS. These biomarkers have the potential to serve as a platform for prognosticating stroke outcomes after 30 days. These serum biomarkers, some of which are routinely ordered, can be combined with imaging biomarkers and used in artificial intelligence algorithms to provide refined predictive outcomes after injury. These tools will assist physicians in providing guidance to families regarding long-term independence of patients. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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