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Biomarkers of food intake and nutrient status are associated with glucose tolerance status and development of type 2 diabetes in older Swedish women.

Authors
  • Savolainen, Otto1
  • Lind, Mads Vendelbo1, 2
  • Bergström, Göran3
  • Fagerberg, Björn3
  • Sandberg, Ann-Sofie1
  • Ross, Alastair4
  • 1 Division of Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. , (Sweden)
  • 2 Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark; and. , (Denmark)
  • 3 Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research at the Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. , (Sweden)
  • 4 Division of Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; [email protected] , (Sweden)
Type
Published Article
Journal
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Publication Date
Nov 01, 2017
Volume
106
Issue
5
Pages
1302–1310
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.152850
PMID: 28903960
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Background: Diet is frequently associated with both the development and prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is a lack of objective tools for assessing the relation between diet and T2D. Biomarkers of dietary intake are unconfounded by recall and reporting bias, and using multiple dietary biomarkers could help strengthen the link between a healthy diet and the prevention of T2D.Objective: The objective of this study was to explore how diet is related to glucose tolerance status (GTS) and to future development of T2D irrespective of common T2D and cardiovascular disease risk factors by using multiple dietary biomarkers.Design: Dietary biomarkers were measured in plasma from 64-y-old Swedish women with different GTS [normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 190), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 209), and diabetes (n = 230)]. The same subjects were followed up after 5 y to determine changes in glucose tolerance (n = 167 for NGT, n = 174 for IGT, and n = 159 for diabetes). ANCOVA and logistic regression were used to explore baseline data for associations between dietary biomarkers, GTS, and new T2D cases at follow-up (n = 69).Results: Of the 10 dietary biomarkers analyzed, β-alanine (beef) (P-raw < 0.001), alkylresorcinols C17 and C19 (whole-grain wheat and rye) (P-raw = 0.003 and 0.011), eicosapentaenoic acid (fish) (P-raw = 0.041), 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) (fish) (P-raw = 0.002), linoleic acid (P-raw < 0.001), oleic acid (P-raw = 0.003), and α-tocopherol (margarine and vegetable oil) (P-raw < 0.001) were associated with GTS, and CMPF (fish) (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.93; P-raw = 0.013) and α-tocopherol (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.98; P-raw = 0.041) were inversely associated with future T2D development.Conclusions: Several circulating dietary biomarkers were strongly associated with GTS after correction for known T2D risk factors, underlining the role of diet in the development and prevention of T2D. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use multiple dietary biomarkers to investigate the link between diet and disease risk.

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