The Ca(2+)-regulated photoprotein obelin has been examined as a label for bioluminescence immunoassay of infective agents. The hepatitis B virus (HbsAg) and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Shigella sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were chosen as model antigens. Chemically synthesized obelin-corresponding antibody conjugates were used in a solid-phase microplate immunoassay. The sensitivities achieved by the assay were 0.25 ng/mL for S. sonnei LPS and 0.375 ng/mL for HbsAg. A novel, filter-based immunoassay to determine bacterial admixtures in the environment was proposed. The NanoCeram filters were effectively applied to 'trap' and pre-concentrate pathogens from samples under study for the purposes of further detection and measurement of the absorbed material by bioluminescence immunoassay.