The longlegged ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) is one of the most damaging invasive tramp ants globally. It is generally found between latitudes 27°N and 27°S in Asia, although it has been introduced to other continents. Its native range remains debatable, but it is believed to be in Southeast Asia. Anoplolepis gracilipes invasion has many serious ecological consequences, especially for native invertebrate, vertebrate, and plant communities, altering ecosystem dynamics and functions. We examine and synthesize the literature about this species’ origin and distribution, impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems, biology and ecology, chemical control, and potential biocontrol agents. We highlight emerging research needs on the origin and invasion history of this species, its reproductive mode, its relationship with myrmecophiles, and its host–microbial interactions, and we discuss future research directions.