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The biology and conservation status of the large hammerhead shark complex: the great, scalloped, and smooth hammerheads

Authors
  • Gallagher, Austin J.1, 2
  • Klimley, A. Peter3
  • 1 Beneath the Waves, Inc., Herndon, VA, 20172, USA , Herndon (United States)
  • 2 University of Miami, Marine Ecosystems and Society, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Coral Gables, FL, USA , Coral Gables (United States)
  • 3 University of California, Davis, Biotelemetry Laboratory, Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology, Davis, CA, USA , Davis (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jul 21, 2018
Volume
28
Issue
4
Pages
777–794
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11160-018-9530-5
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Hammerhead sharks are among the most intriguing yet imperiled groups of large sharks globally. Until recently, our understanding of their biology, movements, diet, and life histories was challenged by a lack of studies. In recent years there has been a surge of published studies on this group of sharks, incorporating new information on age and growth, behavior, and the threats they face. Here we summarize and compare what is known on the biology and conservation of the three largest species of hammerhead sharks: the great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran), the scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), and the smooth hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena). We chose these species since they are the most well-studied of the hammerheads, and also because they are commonly captured in target and non-target fisheries worldwide. Thus, we also discuss population trends and the vulnerabilities of each species, and make recommendations for future studies on these fascinating and complex elasmobranch fishes.

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