The treatment of chronic wounds is a continuously developing research focus. The problems of excessive mechanical forces, infection, inflammation, reduced production of growth factors, and lack of collagen will affect the results of treatment. The purpose of this study was to analysse the elements that lead to long-term non-healing of chronic wounds and trophic ulcers, including diabetic foot syndrome, by determining the optimal treatment algorithm. The paper presents an analysis of the world literature on the etiopathogenesis and principles of chronic wound treatment in diabetic foot syndrome. The epidemiology of chronic wounds of different genesis is presented. The issues of physiological and metabolic disorders in chronic ulcers affecting the process of wound healing are discussed. Particular attention is paid to collagen, which is a protein that forms the basis of connective tissue; collagen ensures the strength and elasticity of the skin, which confirms the importance of its role not only in aesthetics but also in the process of wound healing. Different types of collagen and their roles in the mechanisms of chronic wound healing in diabetic foot syndrome are described. The results of clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of medical products and preparations, consisting of collagen with preserved (native collagen) and fractionated structures, in treating chronic wounds of diabetic foot syndrome are analysed. It has been shown that the use of native collagen preparations is a promising treatment for chronic ulcers and wounds, including diabetic foot syndrome, which makes it possible to increase the effectiveness of treatment and reduce the economic costs of managing these patients.