Trichogramma species make up one of the most commonly used groups of natural enemies for biological control programs worldwide. Given the major successes in using Trichogramma to control economically important lepidopterous pests on agricultural crops in China, the biology and ecology of these wasps have been intensively studied to identify traits that contribute to successful biological control. Since the 1960s, improved mass production of Trichogramma and better augmentative release methods to suppress agricultural pests have been achieved. We review the history of research and development; current knowledge on biodiversity and bio-ecology of the species used; and achievements in mass-rearing methods, release strategies, and current large-scale applications in China. In addition, we discuss potential issues and challenges for Trichogramma research and applications in the future.