Due to the continuous rise in biofilm-related infections, biofilms seriously threaten human health. The formation of biofilms makes conventional antibiotics ineffective and dampens immune clearance. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of biofilm formation and develop novel strategies to treat biofilms more effectively. This review article begins with an introduction to biofilm formation in various clinical scenarios and their corresponding therapy. Established biofilm models used in research are then summarized. The potential targets which may assist in the development of new strategies for combating biofilms are further discussed. The novel technologies developed recently for the prevention and treatment of biofilms including antimicrobial surface coatings, physical removal of biofilms, development of new antimicrobial molecules, and delivery of antimicrobial agents are subsequently presented. Finally, directions for future studies are pointed out.