The recent unprecedented expansion of scientific knowledge and the greater awareness and involvement of the public in medical matters, as well as additional causes described here, have impelled the development of a new form of bioethics over the past three decades. Jewish law and philosophy have always dealt with medical issues. In recent years, however, a voluminous body of literature devoted to Jewish medical ethics has developed. It covers all relevant issues and offers Jewish solutions to many complex problems arising from the recent scientific breakthroughs. This article analyzes the differences between Jewish and secular philosophies regarding fundamental moral theories relevant to modern medical ethics.