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Bioencapsulation efficacy of sulfated galactans in adult Artemia salina for enhancing immunity in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

  • Rudtanatip, Tawut1
  • Boonsri, Boonyakorn2
  • Praiboon, Jantana3
  • Wongprasert, Kanokpan4
  • 1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Mittraphap Road, Muang District, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand. , (Thailand)
  • 2 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6th Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. , (Thailand)
  • 3 Department of Fishery Biology, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Paholyotin Road, Chatujak, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand. , (Thailand)
  • 4 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6th Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Thailand)
Published Article
Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Publication Date
Nov 01, 2019
DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2019.08.065
PMID: 31470138


Live food organisms like Artemia have been used for delivery of different substances such as nutrients, probiotics and immune-stimulants to aquatic animals. Previously, we reported that sulfated galactans (SG) from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri) increased immune activity in shrimp. In the present study we further investigated the capacity and efficiency of bioencapsulation of SG in adult Artemia for delivery to tissues and potentially boosting the expression of immune genes in post larvae shrimp. SG were labelled with FITC (FITC-SG) for in vivo tracking in shrimp. Bioencapsulation of adult Artemia with FITC-SG (0-100 μg mL-1) was performed and the fluorescence intensity was detected in the gut lumen after enrichment periods of 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 6 h and 24 h. The results showed the Artemia took up SG over time in a concentration-dependent manner. Shrimp were fed with the bioencapsulated Artemia (FITC-SG, 20 μg mL-1) and the shrimp were evaluated under a stereo-fluorescent microscope. At 24 h after administration, FITC-SG was located in gills and hepatopancreas and also bound with haemocytes. With daily SG administration, the genes IMD, IKKβ were up-regulated (after 1 day) while genes dicer and proPO-I were up-regulated later (after 7 days). Moreover, continued monitoring of shrimp fed for 3 consecutive days only with SG at the dose of 0.5 mg g-1 BW showed increases in the expression of IMD, IKKβ genes on day 1 and which gradually declined to normal levels on day 14, while the expression of dicer and proPO-I was increased on day 3 and remained high on day 14. These results demonstrate that bioencapsulation of SG in adult Artemia successfully delivers SG to shrimp tissues, which then bind with haemocytes and subsequently activate immune genes, and potentially increase immunity in shrimp. In addition, the present study suggests that a 3-consecutive-day regimen of SG supplemented in Artemia (0.5 mg g-1 BW) may boost and sustain the enhanced immune functions in post larvae shrimp. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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