Plant associated-bacteria can facilitate the host plant in overcoming contaminant-induced stress responses as well as improve plant development and growth. In this study, a successful approach was reported to reduce the Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) levels of polluted soil and, consequently, to improve cucumber growth. DBP suppressed development of cucumber seedings significantly, damage sub-cellular of root, especially the biomembrane system, and affected the microbial community structures of the soil. When DBP was applied at a concentration of 5 mg/kg to cucumber seedlings inoculated with degrading strain DNB-S1, the DBP residue in roots was very low. When the cucumber plants were exposed to DBP stress over 20 and 40 mg/kg DBP, the DBP residues in the roots inoculated with degrading strain DNB-S1 were reduced by 36.5% and 40.42% respectively, compared with the non-inoculation group. Moreover, DBP dissipation in rhizosphere soil is accelerated through inoculation with DNB-S1 which could effectively relieve the pressure of DBP stress on plant. The dry weight of cucumber roots inoculated with DBP-degrading bacterium was higher than that of non-inoculated seedlings. According to ultrastructural micrographs, the DBP-degrading bacteria could considerably alleviate the damaging effect of DBP on cucumber root cell organs. The application of strain DNB-S1 could efficiently alleviated the stress of DBP on the microbial community structure. © 2020. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.