BackgroundRoundup Ready became the most cultivated genetically modified (GM) crop in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing GM soybean meal (RUR) on male and female Wistar rats. The body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight, and histopathological examination were compared between rats fed on GM soybean and those fed non-GM soybean after consumption of test diets for 18 weeks.MethodsSixty weaned Wistar albino rats (30 females and 30 males) were randomly assigned to three groups of ten rats for each group per each sex. All rats have been fed either a diet containing 0% GM soybean meal (control), 50% GM soybean meal (T1), and 100% GM soybean (T2). The body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight, and histopathological examination were compared between rats fed GM soybean and those fed non-GM Soybean after consumption of test diets for 18 weeks.ResultsExamined hematological parameters did not indicate a statistically significant difference between the GM soybean-fed groups (T1 and T2) and their respective controls, though the WBCs of the male of treated groups (T1 and T2), platelets count, and hemoglobin (HB) of the female of (T1) group were slightly elevated. The examined biochemical blood parameters showed that the level of triglycerides (TG) was statistically significantly higher in the female treated groups (T1 and T2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was significantly higher in treated groups compared to their respective controls. Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatinine were observed in some of the treated groups. Histopathological examination of selected organs (liver, kidney, and pancreas) and testes or ovaries and female mammary gland revealed histological alterations among different treated groups (T1 and T2) with their respective controls.ConclusionThe obtained results indicate the necessity to revise the safety standards of consumption of diets containing GM soybean.