Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a tree native from central and eastern México that belongs to the Lauraceae family. Avocado has three botanical varieties known as Mexican (P. americana var. drymifolia), West Indian (P. americana var. americana), and Guatemalan (P. americana var. guatemalensis). It is an oil-rich fruit appreciated worldwide because of its nutritional value and the content of bioactive molecules. Several avocado molecules show attractive activities of interest in medicine. Avocado fatty acids have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Besides, this fruit possesses a high content of carotenoids and phenolic compounds with possible antifungal, anti-cancer and antioxidant activities. Moreover, several metabolites have been reported with anti-inflammatory effects. Also, an unsaponifiable fraction of avocado in combination with soybean oil is used for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The Mexican variety is native from México and is characterized by the anise aroma in leaves and by small thin-skinned fruits of rich flavor and excellent quality. However, the study of the bioactive molecules of the fruit has not been addressed in detail. In this work, we achieved a literature review on the inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cytotoxic properties of long-chain fatty acids and derivatives from Mexican avocado seed. Also, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the oil extracted from the avocado seed are referred. Finally, the antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and cytotoxic activities of some antimicrobial peptides expressed in the fruit are reviewed.