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Bioactive Molecules From Native Mexican Avocado Fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia): A Review.

Authors
  • Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra1
  • Báez-Magaña, Marisol1
  • Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia2
  • Flores-Alvarez, Luis José1
  • Lara-Márquez, Mónica1
  • Zavala-Guerrero, Baruc3
  • Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael3
  • López-Gómez, Rodolfo3
  • López-Meza, Joel Edmundo4
  • 1 Centro Multidisciplinario de Estudios en Biotecnología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Km 9.5 Carr, Morelia-Zinapécuaro, Posta Veterinaria, Michoacán, C.P. 58893, Morelia, México.
  • 2 Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, División de Ciencias de la Vida, Posgrado en Biociencias, Universidad de Guanajuato, 36500, Irapuato, Guanajuato, México.
  • 3 Instituto de Investigaciones Químico-Biológicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58004, Morelia, Michoacán, México.
  • 4 Centro Multidisciplinario de Estudios en Biotecnología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Km 9.5 Carr, Morelia-Zinapécuaro, Posta Veterinaria, Michoacán, C.P. 58893, Morelia, México. [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands)
Publication Date
Mar 11, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11130-021-00887-7
PMID: 33704631
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a tree native from central and eastern México that belongs to the Lauraceae family. Avocado has three botanical varieties known as Mexican (P. americana var. drymifolia), West Indian (P. americana var. americana), and Guatemalan (P. americana var. guatemalensis). It is an oil-rich fruit appreciated worldwide because of its nutritional value and the content of bioactive molecules. Several avocado molecules show attractive activities of interest in medicine. Avocado fatty acids have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Besides, this fruit possesses a high content of carotenoids and phenolic compounds with possible antifungal, anti-cancer and antioxidant activities. Moreover, several metabolites have been reported with anti-inflammatory effects. Also, an unsaponifiable fraction of avocado in combination with soybean oil is used for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The Mexican variety is native from México and is characterized by the anise aroma in leaves and by small thin-skinned fruits of rich flavor and excellent quality. However, the study of the bioactive molecules of the fruit has not been addressed in detail. In this work, we achieved a literature review on the inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cytotoxic properties of long-chain fatty acids and derivatives from Mexican avocado seed. Also, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the oil extracted from the avocado seed are referred. Finally, the antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and cytotoxic activities of some antimicrobial peptides expressed in the fruit are reviewed.

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