A fruit pulp extract of Detarium microcarpum showed inhibition of the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of four new clerodane diterpenes, 3,4-epoxyclerodan-13E-en-15-oic acid (1), 5alpha,8alpha(2-oxokolavenic acid) (2), 3,4-dihydroxyclerodan-13E-en-15-oic acid (4), and 3,4-dihydroxyclerodan-13Z-en-15-oic acid (5). Also isolated were 2-oxokolavenic acid (3) and copalic acid (6). Structure elucidation of the compounds was carried out by spectroscopic data interpretation and by the X-ray crystallography of 2 and 4. Three of the new clerodane diterpenes (1, 2, and 5) showed both antifungal activity and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, and 3 showed a slight inhibition of this enzyme.