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Bioaccumulation and health risk assessment of heavy metals in Musa paradisiaca, Zea mays, Cucumeropsis manii and Manihot esculenta cultivated in Onne, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Authors
  • Ohiagu, Franklyn O1
  • Lele, Kelechi C1
  • Chikezie, Paul C1
  • Verla, Andrew W2
  • Enyoh, Christian E2
  • 1 Department of Biochemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 2 Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. , (Niger)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental analysis, health and toxicology
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2020
Volume
35
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.5620/eaht.e2020011
PMID: 32600009
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate heavy metals concentrations: lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) in Musa paradisiaca (plantain), Zea mays (maize), Cucumeropsis manii (melon), Manihot esculenta (cassava) and soil samples from dumpsites in Onne, Eleme Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. The plant leaf and soil samples were measured for heavy metals concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The health risk index (HRI) of the heavy metals following the consumption of these plant materials by the populace was estimated using standard protocols. The heavy metals concentrations in the leaf samples ranged from 0.012-14.712 mg/kg, whereas those of the soil samples were within the range of 2.543-16.459 mg/kg. Cd concentrations in the soil and leaf samples were above the maximum permissible level according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The bioaccumulation of the heavy metals followed the trend: (M. paradisiaca) Zn > Pb > Co > Mn > Cu > Cd > Ni; (Z. mays) Mn > Pb > Co > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni; (C. mannii) Mn > Co > Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd > Ni; (M. esculenta) Zn > Pb > Mn > Cu > Co > Ni > Cd. The highest bioaccumulation of the heavy metals occurred in M. esculenta. The estimated HRI of Pb in M. esculenta was greater than 1. HRI > 1 was indicative that the consumer population is not safe. Cassava-based meals from the dumpsites contained Pb at toxic level, whereas Co, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Mn concentrations in plantain-, maize- and melon-based meals were relatively within safe limits.

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