Catanionic vesicles were prepared by mixing nonstoichiometric amounts of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate and dioctyldimethylammonium bromide in water. Depending on the concentration and mole ratios between the surfactants, catanionic vesicular aggregates are formed. They have either negative or positive charges in excess and are endowed with significant thermodynamic and kinetic stability. Vesicle characterization was performed by dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic mobility. It was inferred that vesicle size scales in inverse proportion with its surface charge density and diverges as the latter quantity approaches zero and/or the mole ratio equals unity. Therefore, both variables are controlled by the anionic/cationic mole ratio. Small-angle X-ray scattering, in addition, indicates that vesicles are unilamellar. Selected anionic vesicular systems were reacted with poly-L-lysine hydrobromide or lysozyme. Polymer binding continues until complete neutralization of the negatively charged sites on the vesicles surface is attained, as inferred by electrophoretic mobility. Lipoplexes are formed as a result of significant electrostatic interactions between cationic polyelectrolytes and negatively charged vesicles.