A wild population of Drosophila melanogaster was subjected to selection for high and low female receptivity. Selection was only applied in females on the basis of the mating times observed in a 30-min period. We applied a selection paradigm that allowed us to conclude that females unmated after 30 min correspond to the truncated upper tail of the distribution underlying mating times. Selection was successful, with mean mating times of about 5 min for the high lines, 35 min for the low lines, and 12 min for the control. Receptivity of the selection lines remained steady after 42 generations of relaxed selection, suggesting a lack of natural selection on receptivity in laboratory conditions. We also found a clear relationship between high or low receptivity and high or low frequency of hybridization with D. simulans males, emphasizing the role of female receptivity in maintaining isolation with its sibling species D. simulans.