Abstract This study is designed to evaluate the correlation between fatal vehicle crashes (FVC) and consumption of alcohol and/or drugs among drivers. Between 1996 and 2000 in Hong Kong, a total of 197 FVC cases of deceased drivers were investigated. The blood and/or urine samples of the victims were examined for the presence of alcohol and drugs. The 197 cases were then classified into two groups: single-vehicle crashes (SVC) and multiple-vehicle crashes (MVC). Out of the 106 cases for the latter group, alcohol and/or drugs were detected in 22 cases (21%) while the remaining 84 cases (79%) were regarded as no significant finding. As for the 91 cases in SVC group, 51 cases (56%) were positive for alcohol and/or drugs. The findings indicate that a driver consuming alcohol and/or drugs has a higher risk of being involved in a FVC. The most frequently detected drugs for SVC group (11 cases) were: 46% central nervous system (CNS) stimulants (including designer drugs like MDMA); 36% cannabis; 18% benzodiazepines and 9% ketamine. The detected drug for the only case in the MVC group was a CNS stimulant. The number of cases with ketamine, methamphetamine and MDMA detected has increased in recent years as these party drugs have gained popularity in Hong Kong.