This paper empirically analyzes Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) among Japanese municipalities from 1990 to 2003. Using panel unit root tests including one that considers cross-sectional dependence in the data (e.g., [Moon, H. R. and Perron, B. (2004). Testing for a unit root in panels with dynamic factors. Journal of Econometrics, 112, 81-126.]), we find evidence in favor of PPP, confirming the stationarity of relative prices in Japan and thus the long-run co-movement of municipal prices. Furthermore, the half-life of a shock is found to be about 2Â years, which is faster than that of the international PPP. As in the European and US studies, short-term deviations from PPP can be explained by income differentials and distance between cities.