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Beyond Amphiphilic Balance: Changing Subunit Stereochemistry Alters the Pore-Forming Activity of Nylon-3 Polymers

Authors
  • Liu, Lei1
  • Courtney, Kevin C.1, 1
  • Huth, Sean W.1
  • Rank, Leslie A.1
  • Weisblum, Bernard1
  • Chapman, Edwin R.1, 1
  • Gellman, Samuel H.1
  • 1 University of Wisconsin—Madison, United States , (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Feb 21, 2021
Volume
143
Issue
8
Pages
3219–3230
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.0c12731
PMID: 33611913
PMCID: PMC7944571
Source
PubMed Central
License
Unknown

Abstract

Amphiphilic nylon-3 polymers have been reported to mimic the biological activities of natural antimicrobial peptides, with high potency against bacteria and minimal toxicity toward eukaryotic cells. Amphiphilic balance, determined by the proportions of hydrophilic and lipophilic subunits, is considered one of the most important features for achieving this activity profile for nylon-3 polymers and many other antimicrobial polymers. Insufficient hydrophobicity often correlates with weak activities against bacteria, whereas excessive hydrophobicity correlates with high toxicity toward eukaryotic cells. To ask whether factors beyond amphiphilic balance influence polymer activities, we synthesized and evaluated new nylon-3 polymers with two stereoisomeric subunits, each bearing an ethyl side chain and an aminomethyl side chain. Subunits that differ only in stereochemistry are predicted to contribute equally to amphiphilic balance, but we observed that the stereochemical difference correlates with significant changes in biological activity profile. Antibacterial activities were not strongly affected by subunit stereochemistry, but the ability to disrupt eukaryotic cell membranes varied considerably. Experiments with planar lipid bilayers and synthetic liposomes suggested that eukaryotic membrane disruption results from polymer-mediated formation of large pores. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than amphiphilic balance influence the membrane activity profile of synthetic polymers. Subunits that differ in stereochemistry are likely to have distinct conformational propensities, which could potentially lead to differences in the average shapes of polymer chains, even when the subunits are heterochiral. These findings highlight a dimension of polymer design that should be considered more broadly in efforts to improve specificity and efficacy of antimicrobial polymers.

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