Urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may adversely affect quality of life in many older men. Evaluation of patients with BPH should be focused on excluding complicating factors such as urinary tract infection, renal dysfunction, and malignancy. Watchful waiting is an appropriate option for men in whom such complicating conditions have been excluded. For those men who elect to be treated, therapy using alpha blockers (terazosin, doxazosin) or 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (finasteride) should be offered initially. Surgical treatment is generally reserved for patients who do not have a sufficient response to medical therapy and those with absolute indications for intervention, such as complete retention, recurrent infection or hematuria, renal insufficiency, and bladder stones.