Backgrounds and Aims. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), including Ulcerative Colitis (UC), coincide with alterations in the gut microbiota. Consumption of immunomodulatory strains of probiotic bacteria may induce or prolong remission in UC patients. Fermented foods, including cheeses, constitute major vectors for bacteria consumption. New evidences revealed anti-inflammatory effects in selected strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. We thus hypothesized that consumption of a functional cheese, fermented by such a strain, may exert a positive effect on IBD. Methods. We investigated the impact of cheese fermented by P. freudenreichii on gut inflammation. We developed an experimental single-strain cheese solely fermented by a selected immunomodulatory strain of P. freudenreichii, CIRM-BIA 129. We moreover produced, in industrial conditions, an Emmental cheese using the same strain, in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii CNRZ327 and Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9, as starters. Consumption of both cheeses was investigated with respect to prevention of Dextran Sodium Sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Results. Consumption of the single-strain experimental cheese, or of the industrial Emmental, both fermented by P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129, reduced severity of subsequent DSS-induced colitis, weight loss, disease activity index and histological score. Both treatments, in a preventive way, reduced small bowel Immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion, restored occludin gene expression and prevented induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF ), Interferon (IFN ) and Interleukin-17 (IL-17). Conclusions. A combination of immunomodulatory strains of starter bacteria can be used tomanufacture an anti-inflammatory cheese, as revealed in an animalmodel of colitis. This opens new perspectives for personalised nutrition in the context of IBD.