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Behavior of the reflection function of a plane-parallel medium for directions of incidence and reflection tending to horizontal directions

Authors
  • Stam, J. W. Hovenier D. M.
Type
Preprint
Publication Date
Sep 22, 2008
Submission Date
Sep 22, 2008
Identifiers
arXiv ID: 0809.3655
Source
arXiv
License
Yellow
External links

Abstract

The atmospheres of (exo) planets and moons, as well as reflection nebulae, contain in general independently scattering particles in random orientation and are often supposed to be plane-parallel. Relations are presented for the (bidirectional) reflection function and several related functions of such a medium in case the directions of incidence and reflection both tend to horizontal directions. The results are quite general. The medium may be semi-infinite or finite, with or without a reflecting surface underneath, and vertically homogeneous or inhomogeneous. Some approximative formulae for the reflection function of a plane-parallel medium with independently scattering particles in random orientation, including Lambert's law, may be very inaccurate if the directions of incidence and reflection are both nearly horizontal.

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