Background. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid for a case-control study of thyroid cancer in French Polynesians exposed to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests during childhood and adolescence faced a major limitation on very little availability of information on lifestyle of French Polynesians in the 1960s-1970s. Method: We use the focus group discussion and key informant interview methodology to collect historical, for the 1960s–1970s, data on behavior and food consumption for French Polynesia population exposed to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1966 and 1974. Results. We obtained archipelago-specific data on food consumptions by children of different ages and by pregnant and lactating women during pregnancy and breastfeeding and behaviour, including time spent outdoors and type and construction materials of residences. Conclusions. This article presents the first detailed information on several key aspects of daily life on French Polynesian archipelagoes during the 1960s-1970s impacting radiation exposure. Important behavior and food consumptions data obtained in this study are being used to improve the radiation dose estimates and to update the risk analysis reported earlier by correcting biases from previous assumptions and by providing better estimates of the parameter values important to radiation dose assessment.