Abstract The effects of a racemic leukotriene antagonist (MK-0571) and its component enantiomers (L-668,018 and L-668,019) on hepatic peroxisome proliferation were examined in mice, rats, and rhesus monkeys. Administration of racemic MK-0571 to mice resulted in increased liver weights, increased peroxisomal volume density, and a pleiotropic induction of characteristic peroxisomal and nonperoxisomal enzyme activities associated with peroxisomal proliferation. When the individual enantiomers of MK-0571 were administered to mice, a pronounced enantio-selective induction of peroxisome proliferation was observed. Toxicokinetic studies showed that the levels of each enantiomer in the liver or plasma after separate administration were similar. Thus, the enantioselectivity in the induction of peroxisome proliferation could not be explained on the basis of pharmacokinetic differences between the enantiomers. The hepatic peroxisomal response of the rat to MK-0571 was greatly attenuated compared to the mouse. As has been seen with other peroxisome-proliferating agents, MK-0571 had no effect on either peroxisomal volume density or peroxisomal enzyme activity in monkeys. Due to the high degree of enantiomeric discrimination toward the induction of peroxisomal proliferation by these enantiomers, compounds of this type may prove useful as probes to examine the mechanisms by which peroxisomal proliferating agents induce their effects.