Objective To investigate the use of random ultrasensitive (US) luteinizing hormone (LH) levels to monitor children being treated with a histrelin implant for central precocious puberty (CPP). Study design This was a prospective, uncontrolled, observational study at a pediatric endocrinology tertiary center. Thirty-three children (26 girls; mean age 7.2 ± 2.5 years) treated with a histrelin implant for CPP were enrolled. A random US LH measurement was obtained at 6 months, and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog stimulation test was performed at 12 months. Clinic visits occurred at baseline and at 6-month intervals. Results In 59% of the patients (17 of 29), the 6-month random US LH exceeded the prepubertal range of ≤0.3 IU/L. In contrast, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog stimulation tests revealed complete hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suppression (peak LH <4 IU/L) in all 31 patients who underwent testing. US LH levels were highly correlated with peak stimulated LH levels. The mean peak stimulated LH level was higher in patients with a pubertal random LH than in those with a prepubertal random LH (1.2 ± 0.5 IU/L vs 0.5 ± 0.1 IU/L; P < .01). No patient had clinical evidence of pubertal progression. Conclusion The random US LH level does not revert to a prepubertal range in more than one-half of patients with a histrelin implant and documented hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suppression. Long-term studies are needed to elucidate the optimal strategy for monitoring treatment in children with CPP.