The movement toward evidence-based practice in psychology and medicine should offer few problems in cognitive-behavior therapies because it is consistent with the principles by which they have been developed and disseminated. However, the criteria for assessing empirical status, including the heavy emphasis on manualized treatments, need close examination. A possible outcome of the evidence-based movement would be to focus on the application of manualized treatments in both training and clinical practice; problems with that approach are discussed. Commitment to evidence-based treatment should also include comparisons between psychological and pharmacological interventions, so that rational health care decisions can be made. Psychologists should not be afraid of following the evidence, even when it supports treatments that are not cognitive-behavioral in stated orientation. Such results should be taken as an opportunity for theoretical development and new empirical inquiry rather than be a cause for concern.