Objectives: To review the current status and recent advances of genetic epidemiology research in familial melanoma, and the implications for primary and secondary prevention of melanoma. Data sources: Research studies, review articles, and book chapters pertaining to melanoma susceptibility factors. Conclusion: Molecular genetic studies examining candidate genes for melanoma are being pursued vigorously. Considering the complexities and heterogeneity in the genetics of familial melanoma, predictive testing is not currently recommended as an established method for identifying individuals with a genetic predisposition to melanoma. Implications for nursing practice: An understanding of the genetics of melanoma will help oncology nurses in translating the appropriate clinical implications for primary and secondary prevention related to melanoma.