The family of Bcl-2 proteins is one of the most responsible for apoptosis pathway, that is a critical process to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Bcl-2 is an essential apoptotic regulator belonging to a family of functionally and structurally related proteins known as the Bcl-2 family. Some members of this family act as anti-apoptotic regulators, whereas others act in pro-apoptotic function. The relationship between the pro and anti-apoptotic proteins can regulate whether cells begin the apoptosis or remain its life cycle. Increasing of Bcl-2 expression has been found in some hematologic diseases, such as Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and their effects on responsiveness to anticancer therapy have been recently described. Thus, this review aims to discuss apoptosis and the role of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in chemoresistance when overexpressed in patients committed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia submitted to chemotherapy treatment.