ABSTRACT Purpose Surgical management of steroid unresponsive testicular tumors of the adrenogenital syndrome has been orchiectomy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of these tumors accurately delineates the extent of disease. Testis sparing surgery is an important consideration, since male individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fertile. We present our results of surgical management of this tumor based on MRI findings. Materials and Methods Four boys with steroid unresponsive testicular tumors of the adrenogenital syndrome were evaluated with MRI, testicular ultrasound and color flow Doppler examinations preoperatively and postoperatively. Three patients had 21-hydroxylase deficiency and 1 had 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Contralateral testicular abnormalities included a vanished testis, testicular atrophy due to trauma and bilateral tumors in 1 boy each. Bilateral orchiectomy and surgical enucleation were performed in 1 and 3 patients, respectively. Followup ranged from 8 to 18 months. Results Postoperative MRI of the testis in 2 of 3 patients showed no evidence of recurrent tumor. Postoperative testicular sonography revealed no tumor and vascular flow in 2 of 3 patients. All 3 patients who underwent testis sparing surgery have a viable testis in the scrotum without evidence of recurrent disease. Conclusions MRI of the testis in patients with testicular tumors of the adrenogenital syndrome accurately defines the extent of disease. Surgical enucleation of this tumor has been performed successfully without recurrent disease. This surgical approach should be considered for any patient with a steroid unresponsive tumor and contralateral abnormalaties. We believe that surgical enucleation is the procedure of choice for all patients with this tumor, since it maximizes future fertility potential.