Abstract This study examined the influence of competition playing venue on the hormonal responses, state anxiety and perception of effort in elite basketball players. Eighteen males from two basketball teams were monitored during two competitive matches that were played against each other on a home and away basis. Salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured before and after each match. The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) test was also administrated prior to each match and session ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were taken post-game. Playing at home was accompanied by elevated pre-match T concentration, as compared to playing away (p<0.05). The matches played at home were also won. Salivary T and C concentrations were similarly elevated across the matches (percent changes from pre to post) played either at home or away. No significant differences in state anxiety and perception of effort were identified between the playing venues. Pre-match T and C concentrations and the percent changes in these hormones were significantly related to somatic anxiety, especially when playing at home (p<0.05). In conclusion, the competition playing venue appeared to influence athlete salivary hormonal responses prior to elite basketball matches. These hormonal responses were associated with player's anxiety state, which might contribute to performance and the eventual match outcomes.