Abstract 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-pentyl-2-furanpropionic acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-ethyl-2-furanpropionic acid and 3-carboxy-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid were detected in uremic serum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mass chromatography revealed that the serum concentrations of the furancarboxylic acids especially 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2furanpropionic acid, were increased in the chronic hemodialysis patients and that the acids could not be removed by conventional hemodialysis due to their strong binding to plasma protein. 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid was also quantitated in uremic serum by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum level of the acid in uremic patients showed significant but weak correlation with serum level of urea and duration on hemodialysis. Equilibrium dialysis demonstrated that 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-pentyl-2-furanpropionic acid inhibited the binding of salicylate and 5, 5-diphenylhydantoin to albumin. In conclusion, the furancarboxylic acids especially 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid were accumulated in uremic serum as inhibitors of drug binding.