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Eliminace kapkové eroze v porostech kukuřice seté

Authors
Publisher
Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze
Publication Date
Keywords
  • Kapková Eroze
  • Kukuřice Setá
  • Zpracování Půdy
  • Pokryvnost
  • Stabilita Půdních Agregátů
  • Splash Erosion
  • Maize Soil Tillage
  • Soil Cover
  • Soil Aggregates Stability
Disciplines
  • Agricultural Science

Abstract

Soil is essential, limited and nonrecoverable factor of food production and nature wealth of every country. Thus soil erosion is an important global problem. During the erosion process soil is being transported within or out of a parcel, soil aggregates break down, loss of soil organic content and nutrients occur. These negative impacts cause serious soil damage or even nonreversible soil loss. Economical impact of soil erosion is not negligible either. Growing areas of wide-row crops (typically maize) bring the question of soil erosion to the attention of scientific and agriculture community. Splash erosion is one of principal factors of soil erosion. At the beginning of the process are raindrops hitting ground with their impact energy effecting the soil to splash away. One of the possibilities to control splash erosion is utilization of conservation tillage. Experiments were set up at research station Červený Újezd for years 2010, 2011, 2012. Impact of soil tillage technologies in relation to values of splash erosion (MSR) was evaluated with use of splash funnels. Sum of precipitation and its intensity in relation to MSR value was also evaluated. Finally the dependence of soil cover (PCR) on MSR values and the dependence of soil aggregates stability on PCR were researched. Evaluated variants were: autumn ploughing with smoothing of the surface; autumn ploughing followed by perennial ryegrass strip sowing; autumn ploughing with spring seed preparation (control variant); shallow loosening; ploughing followed by formation of ridges in autumn. Results showed that soil tillage technologies with mulch covering surface prevent splash erosion. Most strongly was splash erosion eliminated by perennial ryegrass mulch. On the contrary ridge tillage was susceptible to splash erosion. Next the growth of MSR values with rising precipitation intensity was observed especially in first period of vegetation, less markedly in the last period, in which the influence of precipitation sum was dominant driver. Relation of soil aggregates stability breakdown to precipitation impact was determined to be caused by the lack of mulch or rapidly decomposable plant material cover. Conversely the perrenial ryegrass interrow cover leads to higher ratio of stable aggregates.

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