Abstract Regulation of delayed rectifier-type K + channels (Kv-channels) by glucose was studied in rat pancreatic β-cells. The Kv-channel current was increased in amplitudes by increasing glucose concentration from 2.8 to 16.6 mM, while it was decreased by 2.8 mM glucose in a reversible manner (down-regulation) in both perforated and conventional whole-cell modes. The current was decreased by FCCP, intrapipette 0 mM ATP or AMPPNP. Glyceraldehyde, pyruvic acid, 2-ketoisocaproic acid, and 10 mM MgATP prevented the down-regulation induced by 2.8 mM or less glucose. The residual current after treatment with Kv2.1-specific blocker, guangxitoxin-1E, was unchanged by lowering or increasing glucose concentration. We conclude that glucose metabolism regulates Kv2.1 channels in rats β-cells via altering MgATP levels.