Abstract To evaluate the effects of endothelin (ET)-converting enzyme (ECE) inhibitor on vascular remodeling in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF), we chronically administered an ECE inhibitor, FR901533 (FR, iv. 0.3mg/kg/hr, n=6), to dogs with CHF induced by rapid ventricular pacing. Vehicle CHF dogs were given saline (n=7). In the vehicle CHF group after 3 weeks of pacing, the ET system was activated in the plasma and vasculature (3 and 5 times higher than normal, respectively). Inward remodeling occurred in the femoral artery; medial thickness (MT, 225±5 vs 193±4 μm, P<0.05) and deposition of collagen (DC, 22±2 vs 17±1 %, P<0.01) significantly increased, while lumen diameter (LD, 1173±39 vs 1481±44 μm, P<0.05) decreased in the femoral artery with CHF compared with the normal femoral artery. There were significant correlations between the number of ET-1 positive cells and MT, DC, LD and systemic vascular resistance. FR significantly suppressed the changes in these vascular parameters compared with the changes in the vehicle CHF group despite the lack of an effect on blood pressure, and moreover FR caused decreases in ET-1 levels in both the plasma and femoral artery (reduced to 43% and 54%, respectively, of the levels in the vehicle CHF group, P<0.05). In conclusion, ET-1 plays a critical role in the structural deterioration of the vasculature during the progression of CHF, and ECE inhibitors can prevent the development of vascular remodeling.