In 1994 the Come Back Programme (CBP) started in the rehabilitation centre, Groot Klimmendaal, in Arnhem, The Netherlands. The CBP is a rehabilitation programme for (young) adults with brain injury (BI) having problems with their psychosocial functioning despite having undergone a rehabilitation programme previously. The main goal of the CBP is to regain maximal independence in psychosocial functioning.The objectives of the study were to assess problems experienced after BI, despite having undergone a rehabilitation programme previously, and whether the CBP can improve psychosocial functioning. The study was retrospective, through investigating medical records and via a structured questionnaire sent to patients who participated in the CBP between 1994 and 1998 (n = 25). Follow-up was at least 1 year after the CBP. There was an 80% response (n = 20). The mean age at BI was 22 years. The patients had severe BI (mean duration of coma 4.7 weeks) and 17 had traumatic BI. Prior to the CBP negative consequences were seen on independence of living, employability, relationships and contact with friends. No or little effect was seen on contact with family and leisure activities. After the CBP, positive effects were found on employability and independence of living but not on premorbid levels. The effect on the other aspects were absent or not clear. Most patients wanted support at follow-up. The authors concluded that the CBP had a positive effect on independence of living and employability. A ‘second’ rehabilitation programme can be useful if psychosocial problems are present. Long-lasting support and structural control seem necessary and are recommended.