B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31 or BCAP31) is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein found mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), including in mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). It acts as a broad-specificity membrane protein chaperone and quality control factor, which can promote different fates for its clients, including ER retention, ER export, ER-associated degradation (ERAD), or evasion of degradation, and it also acts as a MAM tetherer and regulatory protein. It is involved in several cellular processes - it supports ER and mitochondrial homeostasis, promotes proliferation and migration, plays several roles in metabolism and the immune system, and regulates autophagy and apoptosis. Full-length BAP31 can be anti-apoptotic, but can also mediate activation of caspase-8, and itself be cleaved by caspase-8 into p20-BAP31, which promotes apoptosis by mobilizing ER calcium stores at MAMs. BAP31 loss-of-function mutations is the cause of 'deafness, dystonia, and central hypomyelination' (DDCH) syndrome, characterized by severe neurological symptoms and early death. BAP31 is furthermore implicated in a growing number of cancers and other diseases, and several viruses have been found to target it to promote their survival or life cycle progression. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview and examination of the basic properties, functions, mechanisms, and roles in disease of BAP31. Copyright © 2021 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.