PBD has been used to relieve a wide variety of cardiac obstructive lesions in infancy and childhood. However, it has been most frequently used for semilunar valve stenosis, particularly PS. Results of pulmonic PBD are almost uniformly satisfactory for relief of typical PS, and the low rate of significant complications show that it is a safe procedure in practiced hands. It is now considered the treatment of choice for typical PS. Recently reported results of PBD for critical neonatal PS are also encouraging. New generations of balloon catheters better suited for neonatal balloon valvuloplasty will probably facilitate the procedure. In contrast, results for dysplastic valves are poor, suggesting that this condition is not amenable to PBD. Aortic stenosis also responds well to PBD in infancy and childhood when the valve is not dysplastic. The procedure in general is technically more difficult than pulmonary valvuloplasty, with a higher rate of complications, especially in neonates.