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Balancing nanotoxicity and returns in health applications: The Prisoner's Dilemma.

Authors
  • Gkika, D A1
  • Magafas, L2
  • Cool, P3
  • Braet, J4
  • 1 University of Antwerp, Applied Economics, Department of Engineering Management, Antwerp, Belgium; Eastern Macedonia & Thrace Institute of Technology, Hephaestus Advanced Laboratory, Kavala, Greece. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Belgium)
  • 2 Eastern Macedonia & Thrace Institute of Technology, Electrical Engineering Department, Kavala, Greece. , (Greece)
  • 3 University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, Antwerp, Belgium. , (Belgium)
  • 4 University of Antwerp, Applied Economics, Department of Engineering Management, Antwerp, Belgium. , (Belgium)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Toxicology
Publication Date
Jan 15, 2018
Volume
393
Pages
83–89
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.tox.2017.11.008
PMID: 29127034
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Over the past 30 years, there have been significant advancements in the field of nanomaterials. The possibility to use them in applications such as cancer treatment is extremely promising; however, the toxicity of many nanomaterials as well as the high costs associated with their use is still a concern. This paper aims to study the connection between nanomaterial toxicity and cost. This synergy may be interpreted as a different version of the classic "Prisoner's Dilemma" game, which in this case attempts to explain the possible outcomes of cooperation versus conflict between science advocating for the use of high-risk, possibly toxic materials due to their high returns, and society that might be dubious about the use of high-risk materials. In an effort to create diverse evaluation methodologies, this work uses a forecast horizon to evaluate the current status and expected future of the nanomaterials market. The historical progress of each market, toxicity information, and possible returns stemming from their use is taken into account to analyze the predictions. Our results suggest various trends for the associated costs and nanotoxicity of the studied materials.

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