The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was a difference between Chinese men and women in postural balance, and muscular strength and endurance; and the effect of participation and non-participation in regular exercise by these elderly Chinese adults on postural balance, and muscular strength and endurance. Chinese men (n = 328) and women (n = 210), age 65 to 80 years, were recruited as subjects (n=538). They were grouped by age: 65-69 (G1), 70-74 (G2), and 75-80 (G3) years old, and classified by exercise status as participation (E) and non-participation in regular exercise (NE). All subjects underwent the following tests: one-leg standing balance with eyes open (OEB) and eyes closed (CEB), timed sit-to-stand from a chair (STS), and repeated sit-to-stand from a chair for 30 sec (STS30). Analysis of covariance (2 x 2 ANCOVA) with weight, height and body mass index as covariates revealed that there were differences (p<0.05) between genders, age, and exercise status for the OEB and CEB tests. The OEB & CEB tests performance declined with advancing age in both E & NE groups. For the STS test, no difference was detected between genders, but there was a difference between age and exercise status. For the STS30 test, there was a difference between genders, age, and exercise status. Based on the present results, it was concluded that: 1) the 75-80 yr old elderly Chinese men and women showed greater decline in postural balance, and muscular strength and endurance compared to the younger (age 65-70 yr) elderly persons, 2) elderly Chinese women were poorer in postural balance, and in muscular strength and endurance relative to men, 3) participation in regular exercise helped in the retainment of postural balance, and of muscular strength and endurance compared to the non-exercisers.